Contribution of Health Behavior to Emergence of Non-communicable Diseases: The Male Gender Norms Perspective

Faith Anuoluwapo Oluwadamilare 1 * , Chiemeka Oscar Ezema 2, Foluke Esther Akinleye 3
More Detail
1 University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, NIGERIA
2 Achieving Health Nigeria Initiative, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, NIGERIA
3 Department of Clinical Nursing, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, NIGERIA
* Corresponding Author
EUR J BASIC MED SCI, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 1-4.
Download Full Text (PDF)


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a global health concern as they constitute a leading cause of death for both men and women globally. Non-communicable diseases account for 41 million deaths per year and 71% of all deaths worldwide. In many societies, men tend to enjoy more privileges and opportunities than women, however, this does not necessarily result in better health outcomes for them. Masculinity in many cultures is characterized by risk-enhancing behaviors such as intake of alcohol, smoking, self-medication and, lower rates of medical facility usage. These behaviors predispose to Non-communicable diseases and directly influence the prevalence of the disease in the male gender. In this article, we explore the effect of gender characteristics on the prevalence of this increasing global health challenge.


Oluwadamilare FA, Ezema CO, Akinleye FE. Contribution of Health Behavior to Emergence of Non-communicable Diseases: The Male Gender Norms Perspective. Eur J Basic Med Sci. 2018;8(1):1-4.


  • Forouzanfar M, Afshin A, Alexander LT, Anderson H, Bhutta Z, Murray CJL. GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 792 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016; 388: 1659-724. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8.
  • Stevens A, Schmidt MI, Duncan BB. Gender inequalities in non-communicable disease mortality in Brazil. Cien Saude Colet. 2012 Oct; 17(10): 2627-34. doi: 10.1590/s1413-81232012001000012 PMID: 23099750.
  • Short SE, Mollborn S. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances. Curr Opin Psychol. 2015; 5: 78-84. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.05.002 PMid:26213711 PMCid:PMC4511598.
  • World Health Organization. The health and well-being of men in the WHO European Region: better health through a gender approach. 2018. Available at:
  • Coen SE, Subedi RP, Rosenberg MW. Working out across Canada: Is there a gender gap? The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, 2016; 60: 69-81. doi: 10.1111/cag.12255.
  • WHO. Non-communicable diseases, 2018. Available at:
  • Hinote BP, Webber GR. Drinking toward manhood: masculinity and alcohol in the former USSR. Men Masc. 2012; 15: 292-310. doi: 10.1177/1097184X12448466.
  • Blomstrand A, Blomstrand C, Ariai N, Bengtsson C, Björkelund C. Stroke incidence and association with risk factors in women: A 32-year follow-up of the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg. BMJ Open. 2014; 4: e005173. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014–005173 PMid:25351597 PMCid:PMC4212180.
  • Wang H, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Lofgren KT, Rajaratnam JK, Marcus JR, Levin-Rector A, et al. Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012; 380: 2071-94. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61719-X.
  • Mane P, Gupta GR, Weiss E. Effective communication between partners: AIDS and risk reduction for women. AIDS. 1994; 8(Suppl. 1): S325–S331.
  • Courtenay WH. Behavioral factors associated with disease, injury, and death among men: Evidence and implications for prevention. Journal of Men’s Studies. 2000; 9: 81–142. doi: 10.3149/jms.0901.81.
  • Nabalamba A, Millar WJ. Going to the doctor. Health Rep. 2007; 18(1): 23–35.
  • Das M, Angeli F, Krumeich AJSM, van Schayck OCP. The gendered experience with respect to health-seeking behaviour in an urban slum of Kolkata, India. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2018; 17: 24. doi: 10.1186/s12939-018-0738-8 PMid:29444674 PMCid:PMC5813424.
  • Song Y, Bian Y. Gender differences in the use of health care in China: cross-sectional analysis. Int J Equity Health. 2014 Jan 30; 13: 8. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-13-8 PMid:24476343 PMCid: PMC3917614.
  • Gender, women and health. Available at:
  • Etienne CF. Addressing masculinity and men’s health to advance universal health and gender equality Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018; 42: e196. doi: 10.26633/RPSR.2018.196.
  • Baker P, Dworkin SL, Tong S, Banks I, Shand T, Yamey G. The men’s health gap: men must be included in the global health equity agenda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2014; 92: 618-20. doi: 10.2471/BLT.13.132795 PMid:25197149 PMCid:PMC4147416.